This site discusses phimosis in its specific forms of phimotic ring, frenulum breve, adhesions or skinbridges. During erection these conditions inhibit the relationship between foreskin and glans. This functionally restricts the erection, and thus has an effect on the sexuality. With our culture's attitudes on health care, it would be appropriate to monitor boys before puberty and encourage early prevention.

2012 : note from author: My previous idea of monitoring boys before puberty is impractical, unecessary and now only of historical interest. please see Postscript.

REFERENCES


Main References
Medical Studies
Anthropological Index


1) Kenneth Purvis, "The Male Sexual Machine: An Owner's Manual" St. Martin's Press New York. (1992) p.30 : (Original Title "En Guide til Mannes Underliv" Gyldendal Norsk Forlag (1991),).

2) Desmond Morris, "Babywatching" Jonathon Cape Ltd. London. (1991) p.157

3) Encyclopaedia Judaica, Book 5, pages 567-576 Editor Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House Ltd. (1971) p.575

4) Douglas Gairdner, D.M., M.R.C.P. "The Fate of the Foreskin, A Study of Circumcision" British Medical Journal 1949, Dec. 24, 1949, vol 2, pages 1433-1437.(extract) (entire text)

5) Bruno Bettelheim, "Symbolic Wounds. Puberty Rites and The Envious Male" (1962) New, Revised Edition, Collier Books, New York. (1968) p.32-33, 50, 53 (extract from text)

6) Bettelheim (ibid) p.50

7) Horst Danner, "Zirkumzision bei Dermatologischer Indikation" Hamburg University. (1986) p.59-60

8) Dr. for Urology Dieter Behling, Hamburg July 1995 in conversation. Quoted with permission. (German original)

9) Prof. Dr. Med. Hartmut Porst "Was jedermann über Sexualität und Potenz wissen sollte" Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, Trias (1991) p.59-60 (German Text)

10) The Kinsey Institute New Report on Sex. June Reinisch. Penguin (1990) p.39

11) LTC Edward J. Pienkos, MC USAR "Circumcision at the 121st Evacuation Hospital : Report of a Questionnaire with Cross-Cultural Observations" Military Medicine Vol 154, 4:169 (April 1989) p.170

12) Bruno Bettelheim, "Symbolic Wounds. Puberty Rites and The Envious Male" (1962) New, Revised Edition, Collier Books, New York. (1968) p.50

13) Dr. Carl Graf Haller "Hydrokortisonsalbe in der Nachbehandlung der Phimoseoperationen" 27 Zeitschrift für Urologie Heft 7 pages 385-387 (1957) p.385 (German Text)

15) Felix Bryk "Die Beschneidung bei Mann und Weib" Gustav Feller. New Brandenburg. (1931) p.174 (German Text) A translation exists entitled "Circumcision in Man and Woman" translated David Berger MA American Ethnological Press New York (1934) AMS Press New York (1974) also printed under the title: "Sex and Circumcision" Brandon House North Hollywood, Calif. (1967)

16) The Kinsey Institute New Report on Sex. June Reinisch. Penguin (1990) p 176

17) The Kinsey Institute New Report on Sex. June Reinisch. Penguin (1990) p.339 (and p.525)

18) Desmond Morris "Bodywatching A Field guide to the Human Species" Jonathon Cape Ltd. (1985) Book Club Association Edition (1986) p.218

19) Dr. Miriam Stoppard "The Baby Care Book" Doring Kindersley Ltd. London (1984). p. 332

20) Dr. B. Spock and Dr. Michael B. Rothenberg "Dr. Spock's Baby and Child Care for the Nineties" Simon and Schuster Inc. (1992) p.225-226

21) Alex Comfort, "The New Joy of Sex" Mitchell Beazley International Ltd. (1991) p.59

22) Dr.med. Jenny Splieth Hamburg, March - June 1997, Quoted with permission - original quote

23)American Academy of Pediatrics, "Newborns: Care of the Uncircumcised Penis", 1984 (The AAP says: "Care of the uncircumcised boy is quite easy. "Leave it alone" is good advice.")

24) Andrew Gordon and Jack Collin "Save the Normal Foreskin" British Medical Journal Vol.306:1-2, January 2nd. 1993 (discussion)(entire text)

25) Dr. John Smith "Circumcision - A Guide to a Decision" The Gilgal Society, London. (revised Geoffrey Francis) 5th edition 1995 p. 2, 14 (entire text)

26) Jacob Øster "Further Fate of the Foreskin" Archives of Disease in Childhood (published by the British Medical Association), April 1968. 43:p.200-203. (entire text)

27) JP Warren FRCP, and J Bigelow PhD, "The Case Against Circumcision" British Journal of Sexual Medicine, Sept/Oct 1994 (entire text) - (criticism of sacrifice theory)

28) Dr. med. Werner Schöberlein "Bedeutung und Häufigkeit von Phimose und Smegma." Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 7. pages 373-377 (1966) p.373 (extract from text)

29) Michel Beauge M.D. "Traitment Medical du Phimosis Congenital de L'adolescent" Thesis for the University Diploma of Andrology. Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Antoine University. Paris V1. University Year 1990-1991 (entire text)

30) Dr. med. F. Saitmacher "Sozialhygienische Betrachtung zu einer routinemässigen Zirkumzision männlicher Säuglinge" Das Deutsche Gesundheitswesen Jahrgang 15 Heft 23 Pages 1217-1220 (1960) p.1218 (extract from text)(German Text)

31) Maurice Bloch "From Blessing to Violence" Cambridge University Press (1986) p 49 and p 84 (extract from text)

32) G. St Jean "Male reproductive surgery"
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1995 Mar;11(1):55-93 (extract from text)

33) Encyclopaedia Judaica (ibid.) p.575

34) Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th- Edition Book 3 pages 327-328 (1988) p.327

35) Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Volume 3 pages 659-680 main Author : Louis H. Gray. Edited by James Hastings. Published T. & T. Clark. (1910, Reprint 1971) p.667

36) The Encyclopedia of Religion Book 3 pages 511-514 Editor Mircea Eliade. Macmillan Publishing Company. (1987) p.511

37) Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th Edition Book 26 Rites and Ceremonies pages 816-887 page 838

38) Bruno Bettelheim, "Symbolic Wounds. Puberty Rites and The Envious Male" (1962) New, Revised Edition, Collier Books, New York. (1968) p.108

39) Ploss-Renz "Das Kind" 2. Band Th. Grieben's Verlag (L. Fernau) Leipzig (1912) p.147 Renz German Text

40) Ploss-Renz "Das Kind" 2. (ibid) p.148 - (referring to: C. M. Pleyte Im Glob. Bd.61, S.278f.)

41) Felix Bryk (ibid.) p.78 : (Quoting EYLMANN Die Eingeborenen der Kolonie Südaustralien, Berlin page 118-119 (1908),).
"Circumcision in Man and Woman" translated David Berger MA 1974 New York. p.97 ) note speech quotes should not close in mid paragraph, the Eylmann citation lasts 2 pages)

42) Felix Bryk (ibid.) p.77

43) Ad. E. Jensen "Beschneidung und Reifezeremonien bei Naturvölkern" Strecker und Schröder Stuttgart (1933) p.171 (German Text)

44) David Gilmore "Manhood in the Making" Yale University Press (1990). pages 26-29,38,93-98,136,152-162,228-229.

45) Kenneth Purvis, "The Male Sexual Machine: An Owner's Manual" St. Martin's Press New York. (1992) p.28 : (Original Title "En Guide til Mannes Underliv" Gyldendal Norsk Forlag (1991),).

46) The Encyclopedia of Religion (ibid.) p.511

47) Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. (ibid.) p.660

48) Felix Bryk (ibid.) p.169 : (Quoting RISA (Nuri Bey) "Studien über die rituale Beschneidung im osmanischen Reiche" in Sammlung klinischer Vorträge Nr. 438 (serie 15) Chirurgie 123, Leipzig (1906),). (German Text)

49) Felix Bryk (ibid.) p.176 (German Text)

50)Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th Edition Book 2 Body Modifications page 318

51) Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. (ibid.) page 666

52) Felix Bryk (ibid.) p.77

53) Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (ibid.) p.662

54) Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (ibid.) p.659

55) Kenneth Purvis, "Das grosse Buch vom Kleinen Mann" (1993) Sherz Verlag Bern München Wien. p36 : (Original Title "En Guide til Mannes Underliv" Gyldendal Norsk Forlag (1991),). (German Text)

56) Eric John Dingwall, "Male Infibulation" John Bale, sons & Danielsson Ltd. London (1925) p.93

57) Eric John Dingwall, "Male Infibulation" (ibid.) the entire book except approximately ten pages e.g. 89-94

58) Romans 2v.29

59) The Encyclopedia of Religion (ibid.) p.512

60) The Jewish Encyclopedia (1965) Volume 1V pages 92-102 Managing Editor : Isidore Singer. KTAV Publishing House. p.102

61) Der Abteilung Für Sexualforschung Universität Hamburg, April 1996 witnessed by Oliver Hasse (German original)

62) Guy Cox "De Virginibus Puerisque : The Function of the Human Foreskin Considered from an Evolutionary Perspective". Medical Hypotheses (1995) 45,617-621 (C) Pearson Professional Ltd. 1995

63) J.R. Taylor, A.P. Lockwood and A.J. Taylor "The prepuce: Specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision" British Journal of Urology (1996), 77, 291-295

64) Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. (ibid.) p.666 (quoting B. Spencer and F. J. Gillan, "The Native Tribes of Central Australia" (London: Macmillan and Co. 1899) page 330).

65) The Encyclopedia of Religion (ibid.) p.512

66) Eric John Dingwall "Male Infibulation"(ibid) p.92 (quoting Tregear)

67) Personal letter from a Cherokee descendant.

68) Ad. E. Jensen "Beschneidung und Reifezeremonien bei Naturvölkern" Strecker und Schröder Stuttgart (1933) p.4 (German Text)

69) Ad. E. Jensen "Beschneidung und Reifezeremonien bei Naturvölkern" Strecker und Schröder Stuttgart (1933) p.5 (German Text)

70) Genesis 17 v.10-14

71) Maurice Bloch "From Blessing to Violence" Cambridge University Press (1986) p. 50 and 51 (extract from text)

72) Guy Cox (ibid.) Quoting Weiss C. "Routine non-ritual circumcision in infancy - a new look at an old operation." Clin Pediatr 1964; 3: 560-563.

73) Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. (ibid.) p. 659

74) Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th Edition Book 2 Body Modifications and Mutilations p.318

75) Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. (ibid.) p. 660

76) Eric John Dingwall "Male Infibulation" (ibid.) p 92. Quoting: E Westermark, "The History of Human Marriage (London 1901) p.205 - Quoting J. Cook A Journey of a Voyage Round the World . . in the years 1768-1771 (London 1771 p.106.

77) Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. (ibid.)p.665

78) The Encyclopedia of Religion (ibid.) p.514

79) F. Rudolf Lehmann "Bemerkungen zu einer neuen Begründung der Beschneidung" Sociologus volume 7 No. 1 pages 57-74 Duncker & Humbolt Berlin (1957) p.61-62

80) A Yip, et al, Injury to the Prepuce Br J Urol 1989 May;63(5):535-8

81) Bradford B. Schwartz, M.D. Lysis of frenum Urology 1979 Feb;13(2):195

82) F. Grewel "The Frenum Praeputii and the Defloration of the Human Male"Folia Psychiatrica, Neurologica et Neurochirurgica Neerlandica 61(2) p123-126 1958
Full Text

83) PA. Dewan et al "Phimosis: is circumcision necessary?"J Paediatr Child Health 1996 Aug;32(4):285-9

84) AM Rickwood et al Phimosis in boysBr J Urol 1980 Apr;52(2):147-50

85) J.R. Taylor, et al "The prepuce: Specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision"British Journal of Urology (1996), 77, 291-295

86) Colonel T.E. Osmond, M.B."Is Routine Circumcision Advisable?"J Royal army Med Corps 99:254,1953(complete text)

87) Dan Omondi K'Aoko, The Luo Circumcision Rite 1986 Frejos Designgraphics, P.O. Box 12258, Nairobi, Kenya(Extract from text) -http://eleusis.ucsf.edu/African%20Webspace/LCR/luocirc.html

88) Parkash S, Jeyakumar S, Subramanyan K, Chaudhuri S: "Human subpreputial collection: its nature and formation." J Urol 110(2), 211-212 (1973)

89) Alexander: "Phimosis and Treatment for Erectile Failure." Diabetic Medicine 1993 Oct; 10(8): 782 (complete text)

90) Paul M. Fleiss, MD: "Where Is My Foreskin? The Case Against Circumcision"Mothering, Winter 1997 his text

91) C.J. Bokström: "On the frequency of phimosis among conscripts and Board School children. Also a contribution to the discussion on sexual hygiene instruction in our schools."Nord.med. (Hygiea) 21:388-390, Feb.25 '44 his text

92) Ohjimi T and Ohjimi H: "Special surgical techniques for relief of phimosis"J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1981 Apr;7(4):326-30

93) Dr. Kleber, Institute for Sexual Research, Hamburg 1996, infront of his students

94) OJ. Clemmensen et al., "The histologic spectrum of prepuces from patients with phimosis." Am J Dermatopathol 1988 Apr;10(2):104-8

95) Weiss C. "Motives for male circumcision among preliterate and literate people" J Sex Res 1966: 2:69-88

96) Kaberry P.M. "Aboriginal Women, Sacred and Profane" page 43 Philadelphia The Blackiston Co., 1931

97) B. Spencer and F. J. Gillan, "The Native Tribes of Central Australia" page 330. London: Macmillan and Co. 1899


More References
Medical Studies
Anthropological Index
and throughout subsidiary texts

Start of a list of EXTRA REFERENCES which contain little or no information

The Kinsey report (Kinsey/Pomeroy/Martin) "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" 9th. printing W.B. Saunders Company - Philadelphia and London (1949) // Does not mention circumcision

Birth Defects Encyclopedia Mary Louise Buyse M D. Editor in Chief Blackwell Scientific Publications Inc. 1990 There is no mention of frenulum breve in this book.

Prof. Dr. med. Peter Rathert Dr. med. Stephan Roth, "Die Phimose", Dt. Ärztebl. 89, Heft 48, 27. (November 1992) p. 28 // I note that in Germany 1992 Gairdner is still the only reference given for when adhesions release.

La Grande Encyclopedie Book 11 pages 432-434 Published : Societe Anonyme de la Grande Encyclopedie, Paris. (1944)

Maydorn, Scheffler, Vollbrechthausen, Merseburger & Poppinger: "Bodycheck" magnus Medien Verlag Berlin (1994)

Markus Kolbe "Indikationen und Ergebnisse der Zirkumzision als Therapie dermatologischer Erkrankungen des Praeputialraumes" Hamburg University (1989)